Saturday, April 1, 2017

About Me

About Me

Hi :)
I'm Lestari (in 2016, I'm 34 years old)my mother had breast cancer at the vasectomy and is now undergoing chemotherapy.

Now I was and had read many booksjournalsor articles related to cancerto help cure my motherand friends of people with cancer.

I want to share on what I've readand would like to discuss more about the various things about cancer.

I consider my mother's experience of pain is 'investment' which is most valuable. a lot of 'spiritual treasure' I can go through the process to accompany my mother-surgery pain-chemo-radiation.

For I want to instruct their brothers/sisters fighters:

1. As the need to treat mental patients remained positive (support of family and friends and pray to get closer to the Almighty Creator of Love)

2. The patient should be intelligent. Do not surrender to the other person (sorry, including a physician). The most responsible in the body is the owner of the body, not the other ask your doctor until you know clearly state your-mouth good doctor would be willing to give an explanation (if my doctor to take a book to record because I am in a state of confusion, came out the doctor's office to have forgotten :). smart: find second, third opinion, read books.

books which I refer is: The Enzyme Factor bouquet Hiromi Shinya, MD books that a holistic, thoughtful, improve pd awareness that we consider good food was not good.

Fight Cancer book by Anne E. Frahm. the author is a breast cancer survivor who had metastases and no hope of life but because he is an intelligent patient who (conduct personal research), very disciplined and do not give up, through detox and the selection of food, the cancer disappeared within 5 weeks.

The common thread of the books is: eat food that is rich in enzymes (especially raw food) because foods rich in enzymes, capable of digesting itself, so that the human body enzymes digest For morbidly drained. Thus, an enzyme the body can function as 'healing agent' for the sick cells. Let's keep fighting!

Any commentplease :)

Indriani Lestari

Saturday, September 3, 2016



Patient empowerment through education will play an increasingly
important role in improving treatment outcomes. To that end, the following
can be recommended:

• Do not hesitate to request a second opinion.

• A patient should ask her oncologist about the best route for cure. If
the oncologist were in the patient’s place, which treatment would
they choose?

• Beware of waiting for a regimen or treatment to reach statistical significance
in a clinical trial before accepting it if there is an intellectual
pathway or compelling information to move ahead.

• Do not accept truncated or overly simplified regimens that may sacrifice
therapeutic efficacy (e.g., FAC-lite).

Finally, it is important for everyone who is involved in the struggle
against breast cancer to remember that the goal of treating breast cancer
patients is cure. For the time being, all we know is that complete
remission is the doorway to cure, and a prolonged complete remission
usually is cure.



• Future trials should be designed to emphasize tumor eradication
and should not focus on questions that have already been answered.

• Multimodal regional therapy should be used as aggressively as possible.
Decreasing the tumor burden in patients with metastatic cancer
should improve chances of achieving a complete remission with
TAC induction adjuvant programs.

• If a new drug program shows superior efficacy, don’t let attachment
to a previous favorite be an obstacle to adopting it. Recall the long
delay before Adriamycin was incorporated into breast adjuvant therapy
and the continued use of inappropriate or suboptimal combinations
and schedules of Adriamycin (e.g., FAC-lite).

• The absence of measurable metastatic cancer creates a dilemma.
Probably the best solution is to frequently monitor the patient and
her tumor markers.

• Toxicity, especially irreversible damage, should be avoided if possible.
The persistence of Adriamycin cardiac toxicity represents a
major oversight on the part of medical oncology. Adriamycin
should be given only by continuous infusion over 48 96 h. This
necessitates placement of a permanent central venous catheter.

• Not all resistance that develops in some cancer clones is permanent,
as evidenced the return of Adriamycin sensitivity in some cancers
that initially became resistant to this drug.

Friday, August 12, 2016



In 1950s 2000

1950s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1944 1954: 10.9% at 60 months, 3.3%
at 120 months. (Previously untreated, systemic metastatic disease.)

1957 NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Program) formed. Howard E. Skipper and Frank M.
Shabel, Jr. show breast cancer can be cured by chemotherapy.

1958 First adjuvant therapy clinical trial: Halstead radical mastectomy1perioperative ThioTEPA.

1960s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1955 1964: 9.9% at 60 months, 4.0% at
120 months.

1965 Roar Nissen-Meyer evaluates perioperative Cytoxan adjuvant therapy.

1966 Ezra M. Greenspan at Mount Sinai reports increased response to combination chemotherapy of
advanced breast cancer.

1968 Bernard Fisher reports significant increase in 5-year survival of premenopausal patients with .4
positive nodes.

1969 Richard Cooper reports significant response in metastatic breast cancer from CMFVP. (ASCO
abstract #57).

1970s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1965 1974: 12.8% at 60 months, 4.7% at 120 months.

1973 Gianni Bonadonna begins Milan CMF-12 adjuvant therapy trial; Blumenschein and Geoffrey
Gottlieb write FAC protocol; MDA begins metastatic breast cancer trial.

1974 Aman Buzdar begins MDA adjuvant therapy trial with FAC.

1975 L-PAM NSABP trial in premenopausal patients; Stephen E. Jones and Sydney E. Salmon report
adjuvant therapy with AC; CMF36 vs. CMF312 initiated by Bonadonna.

1976 NSABP moves to combination therapy with L-PAM and 5-FU; Milan CMF trial reported as
positive for premenopausal patients with one to three positive nodes; FAC adjuvant therapy
reported as positive by Buzdar as both pre- and postmenopausal patients with positive nodes have
increased relapse-free survival.

1977 Buzdar, Blumenschein, and Gabriel Hortobagyi are criticized at meetings for being too aggressive
and for using historical controls; NSABP moves to PMF, then to PFT and the breast oncology
studies surge on; Bonadonna adds Adriamycin to CMF with CMFP1AV.

1978 The East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast go with CMF; Texas and Arizona stay with

1979 By this time, Adriamycin issues are clarified with respect to: (1) dose response, (2) dose rate,
(3) timing with irradiation, (4) pathologic prognostic factors, (5) combination with hormone
therapy, and (6) superiority to CMF questions answered with therapy of metastatic disease.
Kenneth D. Swenerton’s paper on prognostic factors is a cornerstone.

1980s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1975 1984: 16.1% at 60 months, 7.4% at 120 months.

1980 NSABP discovers Adriamycin. First consensus report: No adjuvant therapy indicated for stage I
breast cancer; adjuvant therapy indicated for node positive premenopausal patients and perhaps
for postmenopausal patients, if full dose used. FAC trial not recognized despite its superiority to
CMF because its evaluation was based on historical controls.

1981 PAFT introduced for patients who had failed CMF; VATH reported by James Holland.

1982 Sewa Legha reports decreased cardiac toxicity of Adriamycin using continuous infusion schedule.
Bonadonna reports significance of ER status and dose on CMF outcomes.

1983 Study of Adriamycin followed by CMF vs. CMF alternating with Adriamycin begun by Milan

1985 First meta-analysis; Second Consensus Conference:
(1) established chemotherapy as standard of care for premenopausal patients with positive nodes.
(2) Adjuvant therapy not generally recommended for premenopausal patients with negative nodes.
(3) Tamoxifen recommended for postmenopausal patients with positive node and positive hormone receptor levels.
(4) Chemotherapy may be considered but cannot be recommended as standard practice for
postmenopausal patients with positive nodes and negative hormone receptor levels.
(5) Routine adjuvant therapy not recommended for postmenopausal patients with negative nodes but may be considered in high risk patients.

1986 MDA reports improved relapse-free survival of stage II patients with non-cross-resistant drug
combination consolidation therapy: MTX VLB following completion of FAC.

1987 NHDB (natural history database) and adjuvant therapy comparison study published by Jones.
Dose response relationship for Adriamycin in FAC clearly established using stage IV breast
cancer patients.

1988 CALGB 8081 puts combined CAF1tamoxifen to rest.

1990s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1985 1994: 17.4% at 60 months, 11.2% at 120 months.

1991 Arrival of Neupogen enables more intensive chemotherapeutic regimens. CALGB 8541 raises
issues regarding significance of HER2 receptor in adjuvant therapy outcomes: (1) confirms plateau
of Adriamycin efficacy at doses of 50 60 mg/m2 in adjuvant patients, (2) suggests deintensification
is not the same as intensification, (3) raises issue of studying dose response relationships in
adjuvant patients, (4) results misinterpreted with respect to optimum number of courses for
Adriamycin adjuvant therapy.

1991 Demonstration that a chemotherapeutic program could or would not induce permanent drug
resistance allowed reuse of Adriamycin to be considered if continuous infusion was used.

1992 Second meta-analysis of clinical trials.

1993 The drought of new chemotherapeutic agents is over with the introduction of Taxol followed by
Navelbine, Taxotere, Gemzar (gemcitabine).

1995 The East Coast returns to single agent dose-dense sequential trials in the adjuvant setting without
trials in stage IV breast cancer. Dose intense Adriamycin followed by Taxol followed by Cytoxan.
NSABP shows no benefit from Cytoxan escalation. After the third meta-analysis, 5-FU vanishes
from FAC and CAF.

1996 The efficacy of two non-cross-resistant adjuvant programs is established, but there is a continuing need for improved non-cross-resistant combinations.

1998 CALGB 9344: AC34 followed by T34 vs. AC34. At the 18-month follow-up, AC34 followed
by T34 becomes the gold standard “penicillin” for breast cancer. Herceptin becomes available for
HER21 patients.

1999 Hortobagyi asks relevant questions regarding high-dose chemotherapy for breast cancer patients.
High dose with autologous bone marrow transplantation is discredited. AC34 followed by Taxol34 sputters.

2000 Buzdar’s MDA data remains reliable and becomes a standard.

2000s Survival rate for stage IV breast cancer patients at MDA 1995 2004: 36.0% at 60 months, 22.2%
at 120 months.



AC Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

ACC Arlington Cancer Center (ACC’91 is a protocol I wrote here in 1991
for inflammatory breast cancer. In 1994, MDA started FAC-Taxol.
These were the only protocols in which Adriamycin was given by continuous

ASCO American Society of Clinical Oncology

BCG Bacille Calmette Guerin, a vaccine against tuberculosis that was used in
cancer therapy as an immunostimulant.

BCIRG Breast Cancer International Research Group

CAF same as FAC (from people who wanted to do the same thing but didn’t
want to appear to be agreeing with us)

CALGB Cancer and Leukemia Group B

CAT cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, Taxol

CAVe cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, etoposide

CDDP cisplatin

CEA carcinoembryonic antigen (a tumor biomarker)

CMF cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil

CMFVP cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, prednisone

ER estrogen receptor: positive 1, negative 2

FAC 5-FU, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide

FAC/BCG 5-fluorouracil, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide/BCG

FUMEP mitomycin C, cisplatin, 5-FU, etoposide (VP-16)

G-CSF Neupogen, a white blood cell stimulant

HER2 an epithelial growth hormone receptor that is the gene product of the
HER2 gene (Herceptin is a humanized monoclonal antigen that blocks
this receptor)

IBC inflammatory breast cancer

L-PAM L-phenylalanine mustard

PR progesterone receptor: positive 1, negative 2

MCCFUD methotrexate, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, leucovorin
(leucovorin rescues patients from methotrexate toxicity)

MDA M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX

MOPP Combination of Mustargen (mechlorethamine), Oncovin (vincristine),
procarbazine, and prednisone used in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

MTX/VLB methotrexate/Velban

NCI National Cancer Institute

NED no evidence of disease

NSABP National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Program

SWOG Southwest Oncology Group

TAC Taxotere (docetaxel), Adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide

ThioTEPA an alkylating chemotherapy agent related to nitrogen mustard



Stage I: Tumor ,2 cm in diameter with no nodal involvement.

Stage II: Tumor ,5 cm, .2 cm, with or without nodal involvement.

Stage III: Tumor .5 cm with or without nodal involvement.

Stage IV: Metastatic disease.

Friday, July 29, 2016

Entropy-based feature extraction and decision tree induction for breast cancer diagnosis with standardized thermograph images

Entropy-based feature extraction and decision tree induction for breast cancer diagnosis with standardized thermograph images

Ming-Yih Leea,
Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics


Chi-Shih Yanga,
Lee-Ming Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering

a b s t r a c t

In this study, a computer-assisted entropy-based feature extraction and decision tree induction
protocol for breast cancer diagnosis using thermograph images was proposed. First,
Beier–Neely field morphing and linear affine transformationwere applied in geometric standardization
for whole body and partial region respectively. Gray levels of pixel population
at the same anatomical position were statistically analyzed for abnormal region classification.
Morphological closing and opening operations were used to identify unified abnormal
regions. Three types of 25 feature parameters (i.e. 10 geometric, 7 topological and 8 thermal)
were extracted for parametric factor analysis. Positive and negative abnormal regions
were further reclassified by decision trees to induce the case-based diagnostic rules. Finally,
anatomical organ matching was utilized to identify the corresponding organ with the positive
abnormal regions. To verify the validity of the proposed cased-based diagnostic protocol,
71 and 131 female patients with and without breast cancer were analyzed. Experimental
results indicated that 1750 abnormal regions (703 positive and 1047 negative) were detected
and 822 branches were broken down into the decision space. Fourteen branches were found
to have more than 4 positive abnormal regions. These critical diagnostic paths with less
than 10% of positive abnormal regions (61/703 = 8.6%) can effectively classify more than half
of the cancer patients (42/71 = 59.2%) in the abovementioned 14 branches.

1. Introduction

Thermographs were designed to capture the infrared ray from
objects if its temperature were higher than the absolute zero
degree. This special characteristic was utilized to display the
metabolic heat that was dissipated from the skin surface
of human body, especially for the medical thermographs of
breast cancer. The pathological mechanisms of breast cancer
are that cancer cells produce nitric oxide (NO) at proliferative
stage [1]. This chemical material will interfere with the
neuronal control of blood vessel flow and lead up to regional
vasodilatation in the early stage of cancerous cell growth. This
angiogenesis facilitates a local temperature rise about several
years earlier than the tumor forming. And even deep
breast lesions seem to have the ability to induce changes
in skin temperature [2]. The abovementioned characteristics
of breast cancer tissue specifically imply some meaningful
graphic patterns (i.e., geometric size and location, topological
shape or thermal features) in thermograph images. Hence
thermographs are better suited than mammography for early
breast cancer prediction even when the tumor is taking shape.

Medical thermographs become a suitable tool for early warning.
This key point of this paper emphasizes the usage of
thermal image to diagnose breast cancer. The algorithm with
high concentration rate of cancer patients in a few rule paths
was proposed. The effect of early diagnosiswas not in the field
of discussion.

Besides, there exists highly false positive prediction due
to the little difference of thermographs between the normal
subject (negative case) and cancer patient (positive case) as
shown in Fig. 1. Due to the lack of effective image processing
methods to support the use of thermographs, the credibility
and sensitivity of thermographs are still in question in
medical applications. Medical thermograph has been quiescent
for a long time due to the limitation of hardware and
software. The hardware limitation was broken recently by the
advancement of the uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) photo
detector and personal computer, and the software limitation
was also overcame by the progress of analyzing algorithms. All
the signs indicate that the infrared thermal images will be successful
in medical usage [3]. Recently, large scale of case-based
studies showed that thermographs had an average sensitivity
and specificity of 90% as the significant biological risk marker
for the existence of breast tumor [4]. But all these analytical
techniques still come to a standstill with the traditional statistics
and manual evaluation. The parametric analysis on ROI
(region of interest) of hot spots and cold spots in the abnormal
regions still remain unsolved.

Different medical applications with thermographs were
received attention from various research groups. To name a
few, female breast cancer [4,5], pain management [6] or diabetic
foot [7]. Also various digitally analytical methods for
image processing algorithms were proposed, such as abnormal
statistics method [8], the thermal asymmetric method
[9,10] and the image standardization and anatomical matching
methods [11], etc. Although these image processing
techniques are important in medical thermograph analysis,
lots of these methods still lack delicate algorithms or cannot
totally be a part of the computer-assisted diagnosis solution.

The aim of this paper is to establish a computer-aided
cased-based diagnostic tool to automatically interpret the
thermal pattern by a bio-statistical technique [4] for investigating
the parametric connection between female breast
cancer and thermal physiology quantitatively. The proposed
algorithm consists of five steps, i.e. geometric lofting
standardization, abnormal region statistics, parametric factors
analysis, decision tree induction and anatomical organ
matching. This methodology is not intended to replace the
traditionally golden method on mammography and also not
to compare the minimal tumor diameter missed by these two
instruments. This paper is intended to explore the potential
benefits of thermograph for early detection of breast
cancer without comparing its sensitivities or specificities
with that of mammography. In addition, a parametric analytical
algorithm was proposed to extract the governing
rules from large scale dataset by decision tree induction
for breast cancer. Finally, the clinical applicability of
the proposed computer-assisted diagnosis tools was analyzed
by 71 and 131 cases with and without breast cancer

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

Cancer Glossary 2

Cancer Glossary 2

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): The most common cancer in children, in
whom it is highly curable with chemotherapy. Adult ALL is less common
and requires an allogeneic stem cell transplant to achieve cure.

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): The most common acute leukemia in
adults, mainly affecting those sixty years of age and older. Treatment often
involves intensive chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant to achieve cure.

adjuvant therapy: Cancer treatments administered after surgery in order to prevent
a cancer recurrence.

allogeneic stem cell transplant: The transfer of blood stem cells from one individual
(donor) to another (recipient), after treatment of the donor with specific
medications; used in the treatment of blood and lymph cancers affecting
the bone marrow, such as leukemia.

anemia: Condition when the amount of red blood is lower than the normal
range; may contribute to fatigue. Anemia has numerous possible causes, one
of which is the administration of chemotherapy.

angiogenesis inhibitors: Cancer-fighting medicines that block the blood supply
to a cancer.

apoptosis: The biologic term for the organized process of death experienced by
cancer cells in response to cancer-fighting treatments.

autologous stem cell transplant: The removal and return of one’s own blood
stem cells, separated by the administration of intensive (“high dose”) chemotherapy
to treat blood and lymph cancers, testicular cancer, and some sarcomas.

blood stem cells: The population of cells derived from bone marrow that can
reconstitute a person’s bone marrow, blood-forming capacity, and immune
system when their own bone marrow has been intentionally destroyed or
suppressed as part of the transplant process. Blood stem cells can be driven
into the bloodstream and harvested through a catheter in a vein.

bone scan: A radiology test that detects cancer deposits in the bone through the
intravenous injection of a radioactive bone-seeking compound.
cancer clinical trial: A research study that enrolls people on a voluntary basis
to test the effectiveness of a new way to prevent, diagnose, or treat cancer.

cell: The basic structural building block of all living things.

chromosomes: Rodlike structures found in most living cells that are composed
of DNA and proteins required to maintain the DNA. Most human cells
have forty-six chromosomes; alterations of normal chromosome structure
are commonly found in cancer cells.

chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): The most common type of leukemia,
mainly affecting those sixty years of age and older.

chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): A type of leukemia characterized by an
initial chronic phase followed, if not successfully treated, by a more aggressive
phase. CML is highly treatable with targeted medicines such as Gleevec.

CT (computerized tomography) scan: Detailed pictures of the inside of the body
taken using a sophisticated X-ray machine linked to a computer.

cure: When no evidence of a cancer can be found after treatment for the life
of the patient. A cancer is commonly described as cured after a period of
time after which the chance of a recurrence is extremely low, such as five
or ten years.

EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor): A molecule on the surface of many
cancers that stimulates the cancer to grow; it is the target of a class of cancerfighting
drugs, called “EGFR inhibitors,” that include such medicines as
Tarceva and Erbitux.

genetic testing for cancer: The analysis of a person’s DNA, derived from a simple
blood test, to determine their predisposition to develop specific cancers.
The results may enable the person tested and/or his or her family members
to prevent cancer if recommended precautions are taken.

genomics: The study of a cancer’s DNA through sophisticated scientific techniques.
informed consent: The process by which a person is fully informed and educated
about the risks and benefits of a procedure they may undergo; usually
relates to participation in a clinical trial or when considering genetic testing
for a family cancer gene.

LDH (lactate dehydrogenase): An easily measurable chemical found in the
bloodstream that may be generated in high amounts by rapidly growing
cancers, in particular lymphomas.

mediastinum: The area of the human body located in the middle of the chest
between the lungs, containing the heart, portions of the aorta and vena cava,
main bronchial tubes, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and other structures.
metastasis: The spread of cancer to regions of the body away from the original
site of the cancer, for example, when colon cancer spreads to the liver.

MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance): Condition
when an M-spike is detected in the bloodstream but there is no evidence of
cancer; patients must be followed for the possible development of multiple
myeloma and related disorders.

micrometastases: Cancer deposits that have spread in the body but are too small
to be detected by imaging techniques, such as CT scans.

M-protein (also called M-spike): An abnormal protein found in the bloodstream
of patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia, and
some other blood/lymph cancers; the protein is made by the cancerous
cells and declines in amount with effective treatment. May also be found
in MGUS.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan: Detailed pictures of the inside of the
body taken using a sophisticated machine that uses a powerful magnet
linked to a computer.

mutation: A change in the DNA sequence that may alter the function of a gene
and its corresponding protein. The DNA of a cancer cell is characterized by
the presence of numerous mutations.

neoadjuvant therapy: Cancer treatments administered before and in preparation
for surgery.

neutropenia: Condition when the bacteria-fighting blood cells called neutrophils
are present in levels significantly below the normal range; usually associated
with the use of chemotherapy or radiation. Neutropenia places the
patient at increased risk for infection.

oncogenes: Normal genes that function abnormally as a result of genetic mutation
and that contribute to the development of cancer; many oncogenes
are the targets of new cancer-fighting medicines called targeted therapies.

PET (positron emission tomography) scan: A technique to measure the activity
level of some cancers through the injection of radioactive glucose (sugar)
into the vein.

primary site: The original location where a cancer begins, for example, the
breast, prostate, or lung.

prognostic factor: Some aspect of a patient or their cancer used to predict the
aggressiveness and survivability of that cancer; for example, being estrogen
receptor (ER) positive is a good prognostic factor in breast cancer.

progressive disease: The term used by doctors to convey that a cancer is growing.

PSA (prostate specific antigen): A blood marker of prostate cancer used in
screening for the disease and in following the effectiveness of treatment for
metastatic prostate cancer.

radiologist: A physician expert at interpreting imaging tests of the human body.
A type of radiologist called an interventional radiologist is expert at performing
procedures (such as the placement of a central venous catheter or
the instillation of chemotherapy directly into the liver) under the guidance
of an imaging machine, such as a CT scan.

recurrence: Regrowth of a cancer after it has been in remission for some time.

remission: The term used to relate that a cancer has stopped growing and has
shrunken in size or amount; in a partial remission, the cancer has shrunken
by at least 30 percent, whereas in a complete remission, no cancer can be detected.

stable disease: When a cancer has stopped growing but has not significantly
shrunken in size or decreased in amount.

staging workup: The battery of tests performed to determine the extent of a
particular cancer in the body.

stereotactic radiosurgery: A technique in which high-intensity radiation is focused
on a small region of the body in order to eradicate a limited area of

support group: A meeting of cancer survivors or their loved ones, often led by
an experienced professional, to help the participants cope with the many
effects of cancer on their lives.

survivor: Anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer.

targeted therapy: A type of cancer-fighting medication designed to bind to one
or a few critical targets in a cancer cell.

tumor marker: A chemical measured from the bloodstream and made by a particular
cancer that is an indirect measure of the growth of that cancer; for
example, many testicular cancers generate a marker called AFP.

tumor suppressor genes: Genes that prevent cancer from developing and are
commonly inactivated in many cancers. Mutations in tumor suppressor
genes are commonly inherited in families with a predisposition to cancer,
such as mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in hereditary breast and
ovarian cancers.

whole brain radiation therapy: Administration of radiation to the entire brain in
order to treat the spread of cancer there.

CHOCOLATE FUDGE RECIPES by Noel Marten & Natalie Reid

CHOCOLATE FUDGE RECIPES by Noel Marten & Natalie Reid


1 cup pitted dates
1⁄2 cup warm water
1 cup coconut oil
1⁄2 cup cocoa powder
1 tsp vanilla powder
pinch of salt

1. Soak the dates in the water until soft.
2. Place all the ingredients in a food processor or blender and process with the S-blade until completely smooth and mixed. This takes up to 20 minutes.
3. Pour the mixture into a shallow dish and refrigerate for 3–4 hours until set.
4. Cut into squares and store in an airtight container in the fridge.

Add flavours such as mint, sweet orange, rose geranium or lavender. When
using essential oils in food, remember to use food grade only.




3⁄4 cup wholewheat pastry flour
1⁄4 cup cake flour
1 tsp aluminium-free baking powder
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1⁄2 tsp bicarbonate of soda
1⁄4 tsp fine sea salt
2 ripe bananas, peeled and mashed well (about 2⁄3 cup)
140 ml soy milk
1⁄2 cup pure maple syrup, grade B or dark amber
3 Tbsp mild-tasting extra-virgin olive oil or organic canola oil
1 tsp each of pure vanilla extract and apple cider vinegar
1⁄2 cup toasted and coarsely chopped walnuts (optional)

1. Preheat the oven to 190 °C and grease a 21 x 11 cm loaf tin.
2. Sift the flours, baking powder, cinnamon, baking soda and salt into a medium-sized bowl. Stir with a wire whisk to distribute and aerate the mixture.
3. Combine the bananas, milk, maple syrup, oil, vanilla extract and vinegar in a separate bowl, mixing until well blended. Pour this into the dry mixture and stir only until the batter is smooth.
4. Stir in the walnuts (if using) and spoon the batter into the prepared tin. Smooth the top and bake on the middle shelf of the oven for 50 minutes, until the loaf has risen and is golden brown. A skewer inserted into the centre should come out clean. Bake longer if needed. If the loaf is browning too much, reduce the oven temperature to 170 °C.
5. Cool the tin on a rack for 10 minutes. Run a knife between the loaf and the tin, and turn out the loaf onto the rack to cool completely. When cool, tightly wrap in cling wrap and store at room temperature for about 8 hours before slicing.

In order to make the most flavourful banana bread, the bananas must be very
ripe. However, when bananas are overripe or bruised, they have an
unpleasant fermented odour and taste, so use them at their peak. Mash well,
but do not purée.




500 g cups pasta of your choice
1⁄4 cup basil pesto
2 tomatoes, diced
1⁄2 cup cashew nuts

1. Cook the pasta according to the packet instructions. Drain.
2. Mix in the basil pesto, tomatoes and nuts, and serve immediately.




250 g bacon, chopped
1 full head broccoli
5 Tbsp olive oil
1 fresh chilli, chopped
1 Tbsp finely chopped anchovies
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
500 g cups spaghetti

1. Fry the bacon bits in a frying pan until crispy and set aside.
2. Break the florets off the broccoli head and set aside. Place the broccoli stem, olive oil, chilli and anchovies in a blender or food processor and blend into a sauce, adding enough water to keep it liquid.
3. Tip this sauce into a saucepan and bring to the boil on the stove for 10 minutes, adding water as needed. Season to taste.
4. In the meantime, cook the pasta according to the packet instructions. When the pasta is cooked, add the broccoli florets and allow to boil for 1 minute.
5. Drain the pasta and broccoli and toss through the bacon and sauce. Serve immediately.




2 Tbsp olive oil
600 g lamb strips
1 medium onion, peeled and cut into rings
2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed
1 large red pepper, deseeded and julienned
1 large green pepper, deseeded and julienned
1 large yellow pepper, deseeded and julienned
125 g button mushrooms, sliced
440 g can pineapple pieces, drained (optional)
1⁄2 tsp ground mixed spice
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
4 flour tortillas

1 large avocado, peeled, pitted and chopped
1 Tbsp lemon juice
1 Tbsp chopped fresh coriander or parsley
1 small tomato, finely chopped

1. Preheat the oven to 180 °C.
2. Heat the olive oil in a heavy-based saucepan. Add the lamb strips and fry until golden brown.
3. Add the onion, garlic, peppers, mushrooms, pineapple (if using) and mixed spice, and season to taste.
4. In the meantime, warm the tortillas in the oven for 5–10 minutes.
5. To make the guacamole, mash the avocado in a small bowl and mix in the remaining ingredients.
6. Spoon the lamb filling onto the tortillas and roll up like a wrap. Cut in half and serve with the guacamole on the side.




1 Tbsp olive oil
480 g lean beef, fat removed and cut into strips
4 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed
1 red pepper, deseeded and cut into thin strips
1 yellow pepper, deseeded and cut into thin strips
4 medium carrots, peeled and julienned
1 cup mange tout/snap peas
1⁄2 cup tomato sauce
2 Tbsp soy sauce
2 tsp honey
1 tsp salt
1 Tbsp olive oil
1⁄2 cup chicken stock
2 Tbsp cornflour, dissolved in 1⁄3 cup water

1. Heat the olive oil in a large frying pan or wok and stir-fry the beef until seared on all sides. Remove the beef and set aside. Add the garlic, peppers, carrots and peas to the pan/wok and stir-fry for 3–5 minutes until the vegetables are done to your liking.
2. In the meantime, bring the sauce ingredients to the boil in a saucepan.
3. Add the sauce to the vegetables in the pan/wok, and then add the meat and heat through before serving.




4 chicken breasts
1 cup fat-free plain yoghurt
1 clove garlic, peeled and chopped
1 tsp chopped fresh ginger
1 onion, peeled and chopped
1⁄2 tsp chopped chilli (or a sprinkle of cayenne pepper)
squirt of honey
dash of soy sauce
1 Tbsp chopped fresh coriander to serve

1. Preheat the oven to 180 °C.
2. Place the chicken breasts in an ovenproof dish. Combine all the remaining ingredients and evenly spread over the chicken.
3. Bake for 30 minutes or until cooked through.
4. Scatter over the coriander and serve with your choice of green vegetables (‘I would suggest mange tout and broccoli’).




1 Tbsp olive oil
250 g bacon, chopped
11⁄2 cups sliced mushrooms
2 large carrots, peeled and chopped
5 spring onions, chopped
300 ml chicken stock
2 chicken breasts, chopped
1–2 sheets butter pastry
1 egg, beaten

1. Heat the olive oil in a large saucepan and fry the bacon until almost cooked. Add the mushrooms and fry until cooked. Then add the carrots and spring onions and simmer until soft.
2. Add the stock and simmer for a further 10 minutes. Then add the chicken and simmer for 20 minutes until the mixture has thickened.
3. Remove from the heat and allow to cool before tipping into an ovenproof dish.
4. Preheat the oven to 200 °C.
5. Roll out the pastry and use it to cover the chicken dish. Brush with the beaten egg and bake for 25–35 minutes.




1⁄4 cup olive oil
1 Tbsp soy sauce
2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed
1 Tbsp minced fresh root ginger
1 Tbsp Dijon mustard
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
6 skinless, boneless chicken breasts

1. Mix the olive oil, soy sauce, garlic, ginger, mustard, salt and pepper and brush on the chicken breasts. Refrigerate for at least 30 minutes or overnight.
2. Preheat the oven’s grill.
3. Grill the chicken breasts for about 6 minutes on each side, depending on their thickness. Rest the chicken on a plate for 2 minutes before serving.

BAKED FISH RECIPES by Tammy Wolhuter

BAKED FISH RECIPES by Tammy Wolhuter


1 Tbsp olive oil
1 medium onion, peeled and finely chopped
1 clove garlic, peeled and crushed
450 g ripe tomatoes, chopped
salt and pepper to taste
110 g mushrooms, sliced
1 Tbsp chopped fresh basil leaves
1 Tbsp chopped capers
4 thick white fish fillets
juice of 1⁄2 lemon
1⁄2 cup pitted olives

1. Preheat the oven to 190 °C.
2. Heat the olive oil in a saucepan and fry the onion until soft.
3. Add the garlic and tomatoes and season with salt and pepper.
4. Simmer uncovered for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally.
5. Stir in the mushrooms and simmer for a further 10 minutes until the sauce has thickened.
6. Add the basil and capers, and remove from the heat.
7. Place the fish fillets in a shallow baking dish and sprinkle each with a little lemon juice.
8. Spoon an equal amount of sauce onto each fish fillet and arrange a few olives on top.
9. Cover with foil and bake on the top shelf of the oven for about 25 minutes.
10. Serve with a tossed green salad.

Tuesday, July 26, 2016



2 Tbsp olive oil
2 red onions, peeled and chopped
1 clove garlic, peeled and crushed
1 Tbsp chopped fresh origanum
400 g soya mince
1⁄2 tsp ground cardamom
1⁄2 tsp ground paprika
1 tsp curry powder
pinch of sea salt
pinch of cayenne pepper
1 Tbsp raw brown sugar
1 Tbsp chutney or apricot jam
1 Tbsp cranberry vinegar
1 Tbsp lemon juice
1 Tbsp Worcestershire sauce
1 cup halved cashew nuts
1⁄2 cup sultanas
1⁄2 cup raisins
2 plums, peeled and chopped
2 apricots, peeled and chopped
1 cup milk
2 eggs
1 slice wholewheat/spelt bread
7 whole bay leaves

1. Heat the olive oil in a large frying pan and sauté the onions, garlic and origanum.
2. Add the soya mince and sauté until lightly browned.
3. Combine the spices, sugar, chutney or jam, vinegar, lemon juice and Worcestershire sauce and add to the mince.
4. Add the nuts and fruit and stir until well mixed.
5. Preheat the oven to 180 °C and grease a large ovenproof dish.
6. Whisk the milk and eggs in a bowl and soak the bread in the mixture. Mash and drain the bread, saving the liquid for later. Add the bread to the mince and stir to combine.
7. Tip the mince mixture into the prepared dish and spread out evenly. Pour over half of the remaining egg and milk mixture and scatter over the bay leaves.
8. Cover with foil and bake for 30 minutes, then remove from the oven and pour over the remaining egg and milk mixture.
9. Bake uncovered for a further 10 minutes until brown.
10. Serve on a bed of turmeric yellow rice with coconut flakes and chopped tomatoes on the side.

THAI SOM THUM RECIPES by Noel Marten & Natalie Reid

THAI SOM THUM RECIPES by Noel Marten & Natalie Reid


1 cup julienned cucumber
1 cup julienned daikon
1 cup roughly chopped fresh coriander
1 Tbsp thinly sliced fresh chilli
1 Tbsp minced fresh root ginger
1 Tbsp minced fresh garlic
1 Tbsp lime or lemon zest
3 Tbsp lime or lemon juice
1 Tbsp light sesame or macadamia nut oil
1⁄4 tsp salt
1 cup papaya shavings

1. Toss everything together, except the papaya, and allow to marinate for about 10 minutes.
2. Just before serving, add the papaya shavings and turn over very gently to coat.




1 cup quinoa
2 cups vegetable stock
1⁄3 cup sunflower seed, pumpkin seed and pine nut mixture
1⁄3 cup raisins
1⁄4 cup finely sliced dried apricots
1⁄3 cup finely sliced sundried tomatoes
small bunch fresh flat-leaf parsley, chopped
small bunch chives, chopped
2 Tbsp olive oil
1 Tbsp lemon juice
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste

1. Place the quinoa in a large saucepan and pour over the stock, cover with a lid and bring to the boil. Once boiling, reduce the heat to low and gently simmer for about 15 minutes or until the quinoa has absorbed all the stock. Fluff the quinoa with a fork and set aside.
2. Toast the seed and pine nut mixture in a dry frying pan over medium heat for 6–8 minutes or until golden, shaking the pan every few minutes to prevent scorching.
3. Transfer the cooked quinoa to a large serving bowl, add the raisins, apricots, sundried tomatoes, herbs and toasted seeds and pine nuts, and stir.
4. Drizzle over the olive oil and lemon juice, season well and toss before serving.




15 ripe plum tomatoes
3 medium red peppers, deseeded and chopped
100 ml extra-virgin olive oil
6 red chillies, deseeded and chopped
salt to taste
1 clove garlic, peeled and finely chopped
2 Tbsp red wine vinegar
550 ml vegetable stock
2 good handfuls fresh basil leaves

1. Blanch the tomatoes in boiling water, remove the skins, deseed and roughly chop.
2. Preheat the oven’s grill and grill the red peppers whole until the skins are blackened. Allow to cool, then remove the skins, deseed and roughly chop.
3. Warm 2 Tbsp olive oil in a large saucepan and slowly fry the peppers, chillies and a pinch of salt for about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and fry for a further 2 minutes. Then add the tomatoes, red wine vinegar and another pinch of salt, and cook for 10 minutes to infuse.
4. Add the stock and simmer for 15 minutes. Blend with a hand blender to ensure a smooth consistency and season to taste.
5. In a pestle and mortar (or food processor), smash the basil to a pulp with a pinch of salt. Stir in the remaining olive oil and a drop of red wine vinegar.
6. Generously drizzle the basil oil over the soup, and enjoy with crusty bread.




2 meaty beef shin bones
1 litre water
2 onions, peeled and grated
2 large carrots, peeled and grated
2 potatoes, peeled and grated
2 turnips, peeled and grated
1 stick celery (stems and leaves), finely chopped
small handful fresh parsley, finely chopped
freshly ground black pepper to taste
1 beef stock cube (optional)

1. Make beef stock by boiling the shin bones with a little salt in the water until the meat is soft.
2. Remove the bones, cut the meat into small pieces, and then return the meat and marrow to the stock.
3. Add the vegetables, celery and parsley and boil gently until the vegetables are soft.
4. Season to taste with salt and pepper, and add the beef stock cube if necessary to enhance flavour.




1 cup organic quinoa
11⁄2 cups water
500 g earth tofu, cut into 8 blocks
2 Tbsp soy sauce
1 Tbsp olive oil
200 g mixed salad leaves
35 g crimson micro-leaves
3 Tbsp organic apple cider vinegar
1 Tbsp organic balsamic vinegar
1⁄2 Tbsp organic 3, 6, 9 omega blend oil
drizzle of Tamari sauce
250 g Rosa tomatoes, halved
handful pitted dried olives
1⁄2 avocado, chopped
freshly ground black pepper to taste

1. Rinse the quinoa in a colander under cool running water for 2–3 minutes.
2. Add the quinoa to the water in a saucepan and steam for 30–40 minutes until soft.
3. Marinate the tofu in the soy sauce for 10 minutes.
4. Heat the olive oil in a frying pan and fry the tofu for 2 minutes on each side until slightly brown and tender. Remove from the heat.
5. Combine the remaining ingredients in a salad bowl and gently toss with the quinoa and tofu before serving.




2 carrots, peeled and grated
1 beetroot, peeled and grated
2 cloves fresh garlic, peeled and finely grated
2 cm piece fresh root ginger, peeled and grated
1 tsp each of sunflower, pumpkin and black mustard seeds
small handful chopped fresh coriander with stalks
1 Tbsp olive oil
1 Tbsp lemon juice

1. Combine the carrots, beetroot, garlic and ginger in a salad bowl.
2. Sprinkle over the seeds and coriander, and drizzle over the olive oil and
lemon juice.




1⁄2 cup baby beetroot halves
1 Tbsp balsamic vinegar, plus extra for dressing
1 tsp olive oil, plus extra for dressing
2⁄3 cup cooked brown lentils
11⁄2 cups rocket leaves

1. Preheat the oven to 220 °C.
2. Place the baby beetroot in a shallow baking dish and drizzle over the balsamic vinegar and olive oil. Cover with foil and roast for 30 minutes or  until soft.
3. Combine the lentils and roasted beetroot, and dress with extra balsamic vinegar and olive oil.
4. Arrange the rocket leaves on a platter and top with the beetroot and lentils.




11⁄2 cups (about 280 g) mixed berries
1 cup cranberry juice
11⁄2 cups fat-free plain yoghurt
ice cubes

1. Blend all the ingredients together in a blender.




1 celery stick with leaves
pinch of chopped fresh parsley
3–4 spinach leaves
1⁄4 cucumber, sliced
1 apple, cored and sliced
1⁄2 cup kale
1⁄2 cup pak choi
juice of 1⁄2 lemon
small piece of peeled fresh root ginger

1. Blend all the ingredients together in a blender.


GREEN SMOOTHIE RECIPES  by Jennifer Thompson


2 handfuls Romaine lettuce
1 handful rocket leaves
1 red bell pepper, deseeded and chopped
1⁄4 red onion, peeled and chopped
1⁄2 clove fresh garlic, peeled and chopped
2 Tbsp hemp protein
1 Tbsp flax oil
1 cup water
1 tsp ground turmeric
dash of ground coriander
Himalayan sea salt and cayenne pepper to taste

1. Blend all the ingredients together in a blender.

empowering yourself with knowledge about eating clean, nutrition and your type of cancer, and by consulting a dietitian or nutritionist, you could change your life.

‘You are not only the patient but also the customer, you are paying for treatment and if
you are not feeling like you are being heard, if you have questions that are not being
answered or you don’t feel that the treatment is the right option for you, go and get a
second opinion.’ – NATHALIE MAT, DIETITIAN

For many of us, the word ‘cancer’ leaves us with an uneasy feeling. It brings
to mind death; our own or that of a loved. A million thoughts race through
our minds. Diet is unlikely to be one of them. And that is okay. These things
take time.


Dietitian Nathalie Mat explains that often cancer patients, or the parents of
children with cancer, need some time and space before undergoing further
counselling like a nutrition assessment. ‘The diagnosis can be such a shock
that one is too busy trying to process what the diagnosis means to hear
anything else being asked or said. It is very important that the healthcare
providers of cancer patients do not overload the patient with information in a
single session, as there is often too much information to get across in one
sitting,’ she says.

It is a frightening process, and so Mat advises first having your cancer put
into perspective by a health professional and asking as many questions as you
want. Sometimes you just need someone to tell you what to expect or what
treatment will be like. The health professional’s role is not only to help you
make decisions about your treatment, but also to help you with manageable,
realistic and feasible lifestyle changes, like dietary changes, tailored specifically
for you and your type of cancer.

Avoid Googling your type of cancer, however, as the information on the
Internet is often unreliable and incomplete. Rather consult different health
professionals, from your GP to your surgeon and oncologist. Mat
occasionally comes across patients who feel uncomfortable with their current
doctor, but who are afraid to do anything about it because of how serious
cancer can be. ‘At the end of the day, it is your body that is being treated by
doctors and surgeons, so you need to be comfortable with it. That sometimes
means taking a bit more time to understand treatment options and their
consequences, and getting informed so that you feel okay with each step. I
think it is an incredibly personal process.’

Support from loved ones makes a massive difference during treatment and
recovery. Mat advises loved ones to give cancer sufferers a lot of affection and
personal touch, as it can be a very isolating disease.


Over a decade ago, South Africans were already looking at how food-based
dietary guidelines (FBDGs) could play a role in preventing and treating
disease. In 2001, an editorial in the South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition
stated: ‘South African nutritionists have an advocacy role in ensuring that
these FBDGs receive sufficient media and political exposure to be
incorporated into health policy. But they also have an educational role in
ensuring that all professionals in public health understand the potential of the
guidelines to help improve dietary intakes, nutritional status and health, and
in the prevention of diet-related diseases.’81

The concept of diet as a form of treatment is not new. We have all come
across the proverb, ‘an apple a day keeps the doctor away’, at some point in
our lives. Famed inventor Thomas Edison even once famously remarked:
‘The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but
rather will cure and prevent disease with nutrition.’

As we have seen, many factors contribute to illnesses like cancer, especially
in modern society. However, as knowledge and information around nutrition
becomes more prevalent, especially in the South African context, individuals
have more control and power over their own health and healing. If you are
not enamoured with the idea of going raw, vegetarian or vegan, the South
African FBDGs is a useful and beneficial starting point for adopting a
healthier way of eating:

  • Enjoy a variety of foods.
  • Be active.
  • Drink lots of clean, safe water.
  • Make starchy foods the basis of most meals.
  • Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit every day.
  • Chicken, fish, meat, milk or eggs can be eaten daily.
  • Eat fats sparingly.
  • Use salt sparingly.
  • Use foods and drinks containing sugar sparingly and not between meals.
  • If you drink alcohol, drink sensibly.

By using the tools available to you and empowering yourself with knowledge
about eating clean, nutrition and your type of cancer, and by consulting a
dietitian or nutritionist, you could change your life. As the ancient Greek
physician Hippocrates said, ‘Let food be thy medicine, thy medicine shall be
thy food.’

According to Cancer Research UK, cancer survival rates in the United
Kingdom have doubled in the last forty years. In fact, half of the people
diagnosed with cancer now survive the disease for at least five years.

Furthermore, almost three-quarters of children with cancer are now cured of
the disease, compared with around a quarter in the late 1960s.82
These kinds of statistics are not available for South Africa, but global
trends give a lot of hope. Cancer is no longer a death sentence. The studies
and research being conducted show an abundance of ways to take charge of
your disease and fight it.

Unfortunately, we will never really know why some people die from
cancer and others do not. Carrie Brown was a cancer sufferer who eventually
died, but not before putting up a good fight and making sure she left behind a
legacy in the form of her beautiful young son.

This book is part of her legacy too. My fond memories of Carrie have
given me the strength, hope and motivation to write a book that might
possibly provide some help and guidance to others like her when it comes to
eating well and nurturing the body. By including other people’s stories and a
few ideas about how to incorporate the most nutritional foods into your diet,
I hope that your journey is that much more wholesome – whether you are
aiming to prevent or treat cancer. Carrie believed that we were all put on earth
to serve a purpose. Not only did she serve many beautiful purposes
throughout her life, but she continues to do so in her afterlife.

Saturday, July 23, 2016


‘To keep the body in good health is a duty … otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.’ – BUDDHA

The WHO believes that over 30 per cent of cancers are actually preventable
and that, regardless of resource levels, all countries can implement the four
basic components of cancer control – prevention, early detection, diagnosis
and treatment, and palliative care – and thus avoid and/or cure many
cancers.76 We have already seen that by educating ourselves and ensuring
regular check-ups, early detection is possible. And diagnosis, treatment and
palliative care are sectors that are well established in South Africa. But what
about prevention?

The WHO suggests that cancer prevention starts with not using tobacco,
following a healthy diet, being physically active and moderating the use of
alcohol. According to The China Study, in which T. Colin Campbell and
Thomas M. Campbell II present their intensive research into the link between
diet and common illnesses like cancer, diabetes and heart disease, asserts that
plant-based diets have been scientifically proven to benefit human beings
around the world. This research is significant, considering that the ACS
recommends individuals consume a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant
foods, limiting their consumption of processed meat and red meat.77

What can we conclude from this? Obviously, maintaining a balanced
lifestyle and a healthy way of eating, where one includes as many fruits and
vegetables as possible, is logically a better way to live, lowering your chances
of developing all sorts of diseases as well as ensuring your dietary intake is
made up of a lot of vitamins and nutrients. With smoking responsible for 22
per cent of cancer deaths in the world,78 it is also fair to suggest that cutting
back on habits such as this is a good idea.

We are taught about food pyramids at school and reminded by our
parents to eat our vegetables, but how often do we significantly factor this
information into our daily lives? My friend Kerry, who has witnessed
firsthand how a person’s body can deteriorate says, ‘I always thought that I
could eat what I wanted to a certain degree because I danced a lot and played
sport at school. I met someone in 2008, however, who introduced me to gym
and showed me how eating clean could change your body and how you felt. It
was during this period that I started to understand how your body reacts to
things that you put in it. For example, after eating clean for a while and then
eating gluten or having lots of sugar, I could feel how my body would disagree
with it and how it could even alter my mood.’ While Kerry would not call
herself a fanatic, she now reads labels and stays away from breads, sugars and
processed foods. ‘I started thinking more about what I put in my mouth. I
now understand that your body is a machine and you need to feed it the right
foods to keep it working well. I think I always knew the basics of healthy
eating, but I only chose to enforce them a couple of years ago.’

The WCRF and AICR’s Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention
of Cancer: A Global Perspective, concludes that, while smoking, exposure to
tobacco, infection, infestation, solar radiation, food and nutrition, physical
activity, body composition, and various other factors are all causes of cancer,
‘food and nutrition, and physical activity can protect against cancer.’79 Ergo,
we can choose ways of living that will protect both ourselves and the next
generation from getting cancer.

The same report summarises the most common types of cancer and lists
foods that research indicates may help protect one from getting that particular

Bladder cancer  ==>> milk

Cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx  ==>> non-starchy vegetables, fruit and foods containing carotenoids

Cervical cancer  ==>> carrots

Colorectal cancer  ==>> Foods containing dietary fibre, folate, vitamin D, selenium and calcium, garlic, milk, non-starchy vegetables, fruit and fish

Endometrial cancer  ==>> non-starchy vegetables

Kidney cancer  ==>>  fruit and vegetables rich in antioxidants and phytates

Liver cancer  = =>> fruit

Lung cancer  ==>> non-starchy vegetables, fruit, and foods containing selenium, quercetin and carotenoids

Nasopharyngeal cancer  ==>>  non-starchy vegetables and fruit

Oesophageal cancer  ==>>  non-starchy vegetables, fruit and foods containing beta-carotene, vitamin C, dietary fibre, folate, pyridoxine and/or vitamin E

Ovarian cancer  ==>>  non-starchy vegetables

Pancreatic cancer  ==>>  fruit and foods containing folate

Prostate cancer  = =>> pulses (legumes), including soya and soya products, and foods containing vitamin E, lycopene and selenium

Skin cancer  = =>> foods containing retinol (vitamin A)

Stomach cancer  = =>> non-starchy vegetables, specifically allium vegetables, as well as fruit, pulses (legumes), soya and soya products, and foods containing selenium

Breast cancer is an interesting case. Instead of specific foods, the report cites
‘life events’ that protect against breast cancer. These include late menarche,
early pregnancy, bearing children and early menopause, all of which have the
effect of reducing the number of menstrual cycles and therefore lifetime
exposure to oestrogen. The reverse also applies. Furthermore, there is
evidence that lactation and exercise protect against breast cancer at all ages. In
any event, the report recommends taking into account factors that modify the
risks of body and abdominal fatness, including physical activity, the energy
density of foods and drinks, and breastfeeding. This last point applies to
prevention of all forms of cancer.


While science strives to come up with the hard evidence, we would do well to
consider the role of our diet in cancer prevention. Obesity and unhealthy
eating are signs of an ‘unclean’ life, and are thus bound to have an effect on
cancer initiation and promotion.

‘Diet is a really important component of cancer prevention,’ says dietitian
Nathalie Mat. ‘Eating too much food is the primary reason people are
overweight and this is a direct consequence of diet. Being overweight
generally increases your risk of developing cancer. One’s diet can [therefore]
increase your risk of getting cancer. For example, a diet high in red meats and
low in dietary fibre increases your risk of developing cancer. High alcohol
intake increases your risk of certain cancers, especially the cancers of the
upper gastro-intestinal tract.’

Ernest Hawk, from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center,
maintains that the risk of cancer can be eliminated through proper nutrition,
physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight across your lifespan. ‘We
know what to recommend in broad terms for most people in the population,
but not always the specifics of a highly tailored or personalised “prescription”
for every individual.’ In other words, while ongoing research suggests that
dietary choices and physical activity do have a significant impact on
treatment and survivorship in terms of improving quality of life and overall
health, as well as diminishing side effects and symptoms, scientists are not
able to provide a general one-size-fits-all diet and accompanying ‘rules’ for
eliminating cancer risks. Hawk explains: ‘Diets are extremely varied and
complex within and across individuals especially over time. The vast variety
of different types of cancers and important cancer-associated outcomes also
create a challenge. Therefore, current recommendations are relatively broad
and apply to the general public.’ As we have seen, the broad
recommendations include increasing fruit and vegetables to at least five
servings a day, increasing whole grains, limiting red or processed meats and
salt, balancing calorie intake with expenditure to maintain a healthy weight,
and doing at least fifteen minutes of vigorous physical activity or thirty
minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per day at least five times a week.

While these may be general suggestions, Hawk says the point is that we do
know how to reduce the risk of cancer by at least 50 per cent today – by
adopting healthy lifestyles, having the recommended vaccines and undergoing
the recommended evidence-based screening tests.


Cancer is an unforgiving disease that often takes its time breaking down our
health and our bodies. Recovery can be a very long process. The fear of
getting sick, of facing a premature death, is something that haunts many of us.

This fear can be so consuming that it can even provoke an individual to go
to extreme lengths to avoid cancer’s wrath. Allison Gilbert is one of many
who have undergone preventative surgery to lower their chances of getting

‘I’m not a helicopter parent and my children would tell you I don’t bake
cupcakes for their birthday parties. But I’d readily cut off my breasts for them
– and recently I did,’ says Allison, the author of Parentless Parents, Always Too
Soon and Covering Catastrophe, who has been featured on CNN and a range of
other news stations and websites.

The double mastectomy, which she had done in 2012, took eleven-and-ahalf
hours and she does not regret a second, despite the long road to recovery.
She went on to have new breasts made out of her stomach fat so that she
would not have to get implants.

‘The decision to have surgery without having cancer wasn’t easy, but it
seemed logical to me. My mother, aunt and grandmother have all died from
breast or ovarian cancer and I tested positive for the breast cancer gene. Being
BRCA positive means a woman’s chance of developing breast and ovarian
cancer is substantially elevated.’

When weighing up the statistics, Allison learnt that patients with BRCA1
or BRCA1 mutations have a 50 to 85 per cent lifetime risk of developing
breast cancer, where the rest of the population only has a risk of around 13 per
cent. She also found out that the gene means a 60 per cent chance of ovarian
cancer. ‘At my gynaecologist’s urging, I tackled the threat of ovarian cancer
first. Because the disease is hard to detect, so often fatal, my ovaries were
removed in 2007, a few years after my husband and I decided we were done
having kids.’

It was not an easy decision and she had to deal with the repercussions,
including going through menopause at the age of thirty-seven. Less than a
year later, her aunt was diagnosed with breast cancer and died within four
months. ‘Aunt Ronnie’s death set me on a preventative mastectomy warpath.

I had already been under high-risk surveillance for more than a decade, being
examined annually by a leading breast specialist and alternating between
mammograms, breast MRIs and sonograms every three months, but suddenly
being on watch didn’t seem enough and I began researching surgical options.’

It was a concept that she thought about over many years, torn between the
anxiety of surgery and the threat of cancer. She eventually underwent the
double mastectomy on 7 August 2012, but it had been a stressful journey
getting to that point. ‘The worst moment came one night when my husband
and I were in bed. I began to cry uncontrollably and wished I could talk with
my mother and aunt about which procedure to have, which doctor I should
choose and whether I should even have the surgery. Then a moment of
bittersweet grace clarified what I needed to do. It struck me that the reason I
couldn’t speak to my mother and aunt was exactly the reason why I had to
have the surgery.’

Allison is convinced that if she had not had the surgery, she would have
been one of the estimated 226 000 women that according to the ACS are
diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year. ‘I could have tried to eat my
way to a cancer-free life, but even Dr T. Colin Campbell, author of the
popular vegetables-are-key-to-health book The China Study admits diet may
not be enough to protect BRCA patients from cancer.’

Her rationale by the time she came to have the surgery was simple. She
was not willing to bank on a future miracle cure or drugs, or even statistical
evidence, that her lifestyle choices may help lower her risks. ‘Every surgery
substitute seemed locked in hope, not statistics. And as I’ve told my husband
and children, I wasn’t willing to wait. I love them more than my chest.’


Allison and others like her have taken extreme measures. You must do what is
right for you. Taking control of your health is a good first step, and maybe
the only step you will need to take. Nutrition can provide a valuable basis for
good health, but you need to adopt healthy habits in every aspect of your life.

Cutting down your alcohol intake, monitoring your stress levels, quitting
smoking, protecting yourself in the sun and ensuring that you get the right
amount of exercise all play a crucial role in protecting yourself against illness.
For a start, try to focus on the following:

  • Body fat – Be as lean as possible within the normal range of body weight.
  • Physical activity – Be physically active as part of everyday life.
  • Foods and drinks that promote weight gain – Limit consumption of energy-dense foods and avoid sugary drinks.
  • Plant foods – Eat mostly foods of plant origin.
  • Animal foods – Limit intake of red meats and avoid processed meats.
  • Alcoholic drinks – Limit alcoholic drinks.
  • Preservation, processing and preparation – Limit consumption of salt, and avoid mouldy cereals (grains) or pulses (legumes).
  • Dietary supplements – Aim to meet nutritional needs through diet alone.


Thursday, July 21, 2016



‘It’s about being a person, it’s about being compassionate, it’s about being a healer.’

There are many different facets to healing besides traditional western forms of
treatment like chemotherapy and radiation. Based on your own personal
experiences and feelings on the matter, you may want to explore the various
complementary therapies available to find a holistic way forward with your
cancer or even your health in general.

Integrative practitioner73 and trained medical doctor Janine Kirby
explains that patients often look to other forms of healing during cancer
treatment because of the limitations of western medicine. ‘Essentially, in
western medicine what we are doing is suppressing symptoms. In
complementary therapies, we are promoting balance and healing.’

It is very much a personal journey and one in which the cancer patient’s
personal decision is crucial. Kirby says that often cancer patients have a socalled
C-type personality. C-type or cancer-prone individuals have three main
attributes. Firstly, they tend to suppress their own needs in favour of the needs
of others, and easily comply with the wishes of others. Secondly, they have
difficulty expressing their own emotions, tending to suppress strong painful
emotions especially. Thirdly, they often feel helpless and powerless.

‘Something has happened in their life that has been very painful and thus
strong feelings of sorrow, grief, anger and pain have been incarcerated in their

This sadness or pain, Kirby believes, may be the catalyst for cancer. In
order for these patients to heal, they need to make their own decisions about
treatment and not simply comply with what doctors tell them, as this is what
got them here in the first place. ‘It’s actually about making a very important
and positive decision for themselves and their own healing and their own
path, which can be very spiritual,’ says Kirby.

Choosing a type of treatment, whether chemotherapy or homeopathy, or
a combination of the two, comes down to how the patient feels about the
treatment. Kirby says that if, for example, a patient is under the impression
that chemotherapy is a drug that will only further damage him or her, it is not
a good treatment option for them. However, if the patient feels it is a drug
that will heal, then it is a good treatment option. ‘It is critical that patients feel
empowered when making choices for treatment, making healing decisions
that resonate with their world views; decisions that reflect self-compassion.’
It is therefore important to explore all of the available options and to make
the decision yourself. What follows is an overview of some of the more
popular complementary therapies available in South Africa.


Acupuncture involves pricking the skin or tissues with needles to alleviate
pain and to treat various physical, mental and emotional conditions. While it
originated in China, it is practised widely in South Africa.

‘Acupuncture is at least two centuries old, with research dating back even
further in the Chinese civilisation,’ explains Dr Natascha Wolf, an
acupuncturist based in Roodepoort. ‘The oldest acupuncture needle was a
stone in a needle-type shape.’ Wolf got into acupuncture after studying
homeopathy for six years and receiving her master’s degree. She has been
practising for twelve years, dealing with health issues like infertility,
musculoskeletal disease and mental illness.

For cancer patients, Wolf says that acupuncture is beneficial because it
helps to stimulate the body’s natural healing ability. ‘I personally use it pre-,
during and post-chemo for side effects and to increase energy and healing. It
is a great adjunct to medicinal treatment for cancer. I think it is also
important for post-chemo to try to re-establish balance in the body.’

In terms of general health, acupuncture can also be beneficial. It is noninvasive,
safe and has positive side effects that include deep relaxation and a
feeling of well-being. It can also be used alongside any kind of medication.


This traditional-healing system dates back over 5 000 years. While it
originated in India, it is gaining popularity in countries like South Africa.
According to the Allied Health Professions Council of South Africa
(AHPCSA), ayurveda ‘is a complete system of medicine which advocates that
all beings come from nature and are an integral part of the whole creation’.74

It is ideal for those who believe that the body, mind and spirit should be in
harmony. While ayurveda is a complex belief system, built on the
understanding that the universe is made up of space, air, fire, water and
earth, its focus is that when everything is in harmony or balance, you will be
at optimum health.

The AHPCSA and the National Ayurveda Medical Association of South
Africa offer advice, resources and information for those interested in pursuing
this route.


Macrobiotics, meaning great or big (macro) life (bios), is the study of
energetics. Mandy Hoffeldt, a macrobiotic and whole-foods teacher at the
LiveMacro Wellness Centre in Johannesburg, explains that ‘if you apply
macrobiotic principles of balance, then you will be strong and healthy and
able to live a great life’.

Underlying macrobiotics is the belief that there are two energy forces
governing all things: yin – expansive energy, also known as earth’s force – and
yang – contracting energy, also known as the heavens’ force. ‘These energies
influence and are present in everything, including the foods we eat. If we eat
extreme foods, which are foods that are either too yin or too yang, we
eventually become ill,’ Hoffeldt explains.

Using water as an example of yin and yang, she explains that in its
extremely expanded state (yin) water becomes steam and in its most
contracted state (yang) it turns to ice. Thus, nothing is ever completely yin or
yang; rather there are varying degrees of both in all things.

‘These energetic changes happen in our own bodies whenever we eat or
drink something, either causing some degree of expansion or contraction. By
eating balanced foods, like whole grains, legumes, vegetables and sea
vegetables, and by avoiding foods that are classified as extremely expansive or
contracting such as meat, dairy, refined food, alcohol and other stimulants,
we can achieve health,’ Hoffeldt says.

By taking diet into account, macrobiotics is also based on the theory that
eating local and seasonal foods is more balanced than eating foods that are
out of season or are grown in a region that is very different from the one in
which you live.

In terms of cancer, Hoffeldt says that because macrobiotics is a return to a
more natural way of eating and living, it can aid healing. ‘Macrobiotic foods
help to eliminate excess in the body, which is often a cause of many cancers.

The foods can help to strengthen and fortify people with cancer, and because
it is a completely natural approach, there are no ill effects. Many people begin
to “discharge” or “detox” when starting on macrobiotics, so they may feel
worse before they start to feel better.’

Treatment is simple, based on the principles of yin and yang. Hoffeldt
explains that if you have what is considered a more contracted cancer, like a
tumour, you would apply macrobiotic principles and various remedies to
address the particular condition by following a more yin-balanced diet. If you
are suffering from a more yin cancer, the opposite would apply. Macrobiotics
can also be used alongside other natural treatments like homeopathy and
reflexology or medical treatments like chemotherapy and radiation.

In all cases, the individual is key. ‘Macrobiotics is different for each
person, depending on that person’s condition and other factors like
environment and geographical position,’ says Hoffeldt. ‘Other
recommendations made to people who are ill include living more naturally,
avoiding electromagnetic-radiation exposure from electronic equipment or
cellphones, getting regular exercise, and engaging in practices like yoga,
shiatsu and meditation to help restore balance.’

In terms of living a healthy lifestyle, according to the principles of
macrobiotics everything eventually changes to its opposite. Just as night
becomes day and summer gives way to winter, our bodies are always
changing. ‘We need to continually change and adapt our way of eating to our
current circumstances, our current health and other factors that influence our
daily lives. This way we can truly experience health throughout our lives.’

As there are so many principles that guide macrobiotic teachings, Hoffeldt
recommends learning as much as you can and keeping a spirit of curiosity by
always questioning what is being taught. She was once even advised by a
macrobiotic counsellor to ‘practice moderation in all things, even
moderation. I like to remember this when I see people getting too stressed or
worked up about following any kind of dietary regimen too strictly and
causing themselves unnecessary angst.’

For those wanting to know more, Hoffeldt recommends books like The
Macrobiotic Way by Michio Kushi, The Hip Chick’s Guide to Macrobiotics by
Jessica Porter, Macrobiotics for Dummies by Verne Varona and The Great Life
Diet by Denny Waxman.


Homeopathy is one of the most popular forms of alternative medicine and is
based on the law of similiars. Developed by Dr Samuel Hahnemann, the
concept of homeopathy is that anything that can produce symptoms can also
be used to cure symptoms. For example, an onion causes symptoms like
watery eyes and a burning nose. In homeopathy, a remedy that utilises onion
will be used to treat something like hay fever, which causes watery eyes and a
burning nose.75 Kirby, who has studied homeopathy as well as mindful-based
stress reduction, explains that homeopathy involves treatments that promote
balance and healing.

One of the most crucial aspects of homeopathy is an understanding of the
mental and emotional state of the patient. One of the greatest clues is the
words patients use to describe their symptoms; words like ‘heavy’ or ‘eating
away at me’. ‘One thing that I have learnt over the years … is to really listen
very carefully to what people say and the words that they use to describe their
illness and their experience of it. You can’t say what is happening in the body
is separated from the mind and the emotions,’ Kirby asserts.

Before they look at remedying a patient, homeopaths and integrative
practitioners first ask the patient to describe his or her exact experience of the
physical symptoms, as well as associated emotions and thoughts, so that they
can get an essence of the person. ‘It depends a lot on why someone has come
to see me and what types of questions they are asking,’ explains Kirby. ‘The
diagnosis of cancer is a diagnosis [that will] stop you in your tracks. You have
to re-evaluate everything very carefully in your life.’

It is because of this that she believes healing is much broader than just
what you eat. It is a decision that the patient makes to look after him or
herself, rather than a list of what he or she can and cannot eat, drink or do.
Along with homeopathic remedies, Kirby prescribes mindfulness and

The benefits of homeopathy and mindful-based stress reduction extend
further than traditional medicine in that they can be kinder and gentler and
help people to become more whole, Kirby believes. Letting go of emotional
baggage in order to heal can, however, be a challenge. ‘It’s hard for all of us to
forgive. It’s hard for all of us to let go. My role is helping people connect the
dots and come to a deeper understanding of themselves, and the truth is that
they want to do that.’


Naturopathy or herbalism offers a more natural, herbal alternative (or
supplement) to the chemicals and treatments prescribed by modern medicine.
A South African but American-based naturopathic physician, medical
herbalist and doctor of integrative medicine, Dr Kathia Roberts, is always
amazed at the human body’s design and how it is able to rebalance and heal
itself when we provide it with what it needs. ‘Working with the individual
and assessing their health needs in order to determine which combined
naturopathic and botanical medicine approach would be best for that
individual at that time is the most exciting part of being a practitioner,’ she

Roberts’s approach is to educate patients so that they can be their own
naturopath/herbalist by utilising everyday natural kitchen remedies and
lifestyle practices to prevent disease and optimise health. ‘It empowers the
individual and provides them with the tools and inner mind-body wisdom so
that they are able to heal themselves. They start listening to symptoms instead
of suppressing them. The symptoms provide them with valuable information
regarding the imbalance and disharmony that needs to be addressed.’

When it comes to cancer patients, Roberts says this type of treatment is
beneficial on many different levels, as it addresses psychoneuroimmunology,
the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous
and immune systems of the body. ‘Many studies have been done on the link
between stress and cancer. With stress we look at the part that depression, selfinternalisation,
grief, anger, resentment, behaviour and self-blame plays in
creating the cancer personality.’

Because the innate immune system and neurotransmitter are found in the
gut, naturopaths have found that the restoration of health starts with
addressing the body’s fundamentals, such as a healthy gut through good
nutrition and lifestyle practices. It is because of this that diet plays a large role
in this form of treatment.

‘This is the most important part, as our modern diets can contribute to
why we have cancer in the first place,’ Roberts explains. ‘Food sensitivity
testing [blood tests] will identify what foods cause inflammation and physical
stress in that individual, as well as what environmental and food chemicals
will act as carcinogens.’

Roberts’s natural treatments for cancer patients include:

  • An antioxidant-rich, liver-cleansing, mostly vegan, 40 per cent raw, 20 per cent juice diet low in sugar, and seasonal and constitutional specific.
  • No caffeine and no alcohol.
  • Cleansing practices, if applicable, such as hydrotherapy, sauna, colonic irrigations, coffee/chlorophyll enemas, etc.
  • A herbal protocol that may consist of essiac tea, adaptogenic tinctures, antioxidant-rich supplements, lymphatic and liver support, and whatever else is needed to balance the individual’s system and improve organ function.
  • Homotoxicology with complex homeopathic formulations to help with cellular detoxification.
  • Interleukin therapy with homeopathic cell regulation to address pain and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  • Neurotransmitter therapy to help balance the sympathetic nervous system to address anxiety, depression, fatigue, etc.
  • Chlorophyll treatment, Bach flower essences, tissue salts and ginger syrup if receiving chemotherapy.
  • Meditation, hypnosis, visualisation, affirmation, and colour, sound and energy healing to balance the energy field.
  • Acupuncture and massage therapy where applicable.

What is most important, Roberts explains, is that where integrative protocols
need to be applied, cancer should be approached on an individual basis. ‘We
are complex beings and cancer is a complex disease.’


One area in South Africa that has been extensively examined when it comes to
more natural remedies is the use of plants in healing. Dr Gerda Fouché and
her team in the bioprospecting research division of the Council for Scientific
and Industrial Research (CSIR) are investigating the possibility of a plantbased
drug for the treatment of cancer.

Fouché, who joined the CSIR in 1998, is involved in scientifically
investigating 24 000 South African plant species in collaboration with
traditional health practitioners, as they have found that many people consult
one or more of the 200 000 traditional healers in South Africa for treatment
with natural remedies based on indigenous knowledge.

‘For the past decade, our group, with collaboration from the National
Cancer Institute in the United States of America, has focused on – among
cures for other diseases – mining possible anticancer leads from plants
reportedly containing medicinal properties, even validating remedies and
testimonies from traditional healers who claim to have cured cancer with
specific plants,’ says Fouché.

This is not a new concept. In fact, a large percentage of drugs on the
market for the treatment of cancer are isolated or derived from natural
products, especially plants. It is a tedious process, however, and one that
Fouché says takes between ten and fifteen years of research and development
before the drug can be put on the market. With the focus shifting to cancer
prevention in recent years, they are also investigating the use of herbal
remedies for this application.

The CSIR’s research into this field stems from the need for a more
effective cancer drug. Fouché explains: ‘The drugs on the market for certain
types of cancer are not very effective and have numerous side effects mainly
because of non-selectivity towards normal cell lines. These drugs are also very
costly and the success rate very low.’

While diet does not play a role in their research, Fouché, who lost her
mom a few years ago to sarcoma cancer, says that she feels it is very
important to consider. She adds that the public need to be more informed
about major diseases and their causes.

In the meantime, Fouché and her team continue to search for a plantbased
drug that could aid with healing and treating cancer.


Reiki, the ancient art of ‘laying on of hands’ in order to heal, addresses the
connection between emotions and health. According to reiki master Karen
Lange, when it comes to cancer patients, ‘Reiki restores balance to the body's
energy systems and helps with the effects of chemotherapy, as well as creating
a perfect environment for boosting immunity and the body's ability to self

Rei – the spiritual power or universal transcendental spirit – and ki – the
essence of vital life-force energy – uses touch to convey feelings like warmth,
serenity, love and healing through the channelling of energy. This energy is
said to enhance a person’s life force. While not considered a religion, Western
Reiki techniques are based on ancient Tibetan healing methodologies that
enable one to tap into the infinite and limitless source of life-force energy to

Those who practise Western Reiki believe that there are many different
vibrations of ki within the human aura, as well as chakras that help to sustain
the physical body, thoughts, feelings and spirituality. When ki is out of
balance, negative energy forms around the physical body and within the auras
and chakras. This energy cannot flow freely and results in illness in the body.

By removing this negative energy, healthy ki can flow freely once again and
heal the body. Eastern Reiki is more about living by the reiki principles
(compassion, gratitude, duty and peace), understanding and working with the
body’s energy wave and stimulating the lymphatic system to release toxicity.

Lange says, ‘Reiki healers channel positive ki to the area of the body,
chakra or aura where negative energy is harboured, allowing it to be released
from the person’s energy field and replaced by healthy ki, resulting in the
natural flow of positive ki. In short, reiki healers channel through pure
universal love.’

While not advocated as a replacement for modern medicine, reiki can
assist individuals in that it allows them to take responsibility for their own
health and happiness. The benefits of reiki include physical improvements like
easing aches and pains, relaxing muscles and tension, relieving fatigue,
clearing toxins, supporting the immune system, reducing blood pressure and
helping with better sleep, as well as emotional and mental improvements like
relaxing the body and mind, promoting feelings of calmness and well-being,
relieving stress, encouraging emotional release and unlocking suppressed

You can approach the Reiki Association of Southern Africa to find out